A Transnational Study on The Economic Liberation in Egypt during The Presidency of Anwar Sadat in 1970-1982

Muhamad Aji Surya


The Arab Republic of Egypt has become of the most influential countries in the Middle East Region and Africa. Unsurprisingly, external parties were interested to interfere in this country. As the Cold War raged, a series of conflicts arose, creating the dynamics in the Middles East countries. The conflicts that arose had an enormous effect on the economy of the countries. Many earlier studies have discussed the conflict and its impact and the rivalry of the two blocs of power fighting for influence in Egypt. However, what remains unexplored and draws only little attention among the researchers is how these forces affect the countries like Egypt to become 'competitive arenas'. This study analyzes and explains the influence of the United States in Egypt, specifically in terms of increasing economic liberalization after the Camp David agreement. The results indicated that Camp David accelerated the economic liberalization that Egypt had started in 1974. The increase in economic liberalization in Egypt was mainly driven by the foreign aid provided by the United States as its transnational tool. The strongest evidence of increasing economic liberalization in Egypt is the open-door policy for foreign investment and product exports to Egypt. The Egyptian government had no longer absolute power in regulating the market. Meanwhile, the impact of increasing economic liberalization on society is seen in the consumption and demand for American products. American fast-food companies such as KFC and McDonald's were welcomed among the Egyptian people.



Economic Liberation, Transnational, Camp David

Full Text:



Aulas, M. C. (1982). Sadat's Egypt: A Balance Sheet. MERIP Report, Middle East Research and Information Project, Inc, No. 107.

Barlow, R. (1982). Economic Growth in the Middle East, 1950-1972. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, 129-157.

Burns, W. J. (1985). Economic Aid and American Policy Toward Egypt, 1955-1981. New York: State University of New York Press.

Hilton Root, Y. L. (2016). The US Foreign Aid Policy to the Middle East: The Political Economy of US Assistance to the MENA Region. SSRN Electronic Journal, doi:10.2139/ssrn. 2716757, 1-18.

Huber, D. (2018). Forty Years of Camp David, Forty Years Without Peace. Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI ), 1-15.

Kanovsky, E. (1968). The Economic Aftermath of the Six Day War: Uar, Jordan and Syria, Part II. Middle East Journal, Vol. 2, No.3, 278-296.

Lancaster, C. (2007). Foreign Aid: Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Politics. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

McDermott, R. (1998). Risk-Taking In International Politics, Prospects Theory in American Foreign Policy. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

McLaughlin, G. T. (1978). Infitah in Egypt: An Appraisal of Egypt's Open - Door Policy for Foreign Investment. Fordham Law Review, Volume. 46, Issue 5.

Mohamed Baraka, diwawancarai oleh Muhamad Aji, Agustus 2022, Kairo, Mesir.

Momani, B. (2003). Promoting Economic Liberalization in Egypt: From U.S. Foreign Aid to Trade and Investment. Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 7, No.3, September.

Naidu, A. G. (1992). Camp David Accords: A Study in American Foreign Policy. The Indian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 53, No. 3, 397-414.

Porat. Liad. (20140. The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt-Israel Peace. Begin-Sadat Center For Strategic Studies.

Rowe, J. C. (2014). Featured Articles: Three Articles on Transnationalism and American Studies. American Studies Association: http:/www.theasa.net. DOR 15 Juli 2014.

Smith, G. S. (2011). Jimmy Carter: A Progressive Evangelical. The Review of Faith and International Affairs, Volume 9, Issue 4, 61-70.

Safty, A. (1991). Sadat's Negotiations with the United States and Israel: From Sinai to Camp David. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 50, No. 3, 285-298.

Sharp M. Jeremy. (2020). “Egypt: Background and US Relations.” Congressional Research Services.

Shlaim, A. (1988). The Impact of U.S. Policy in the Middle East. Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, 15-28.

Sharp, J. M., Humud, C. E., & Collins, S. R. (2020). U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2021 Request. Congressional Research Service.

Studies, I. f. (1979). The Camp David Agreements for Middle East Peace. Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 205-214.

Telhami, S. (1992). Evaluating Bargaining Performance: The Case of Camp David. Political Science Quarterly, Volume 107, Issues 4, 629-653.

The Camp David Agreements for Middle East Peace. (1979). Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, 205-214.

USAID. (2022, April 4). Brief Chronology and Highlights of the History of U.S. Foreign Assistance Activities. Retrieved from https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PCAAB438.pdf

Vertovec, S. (1999). Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1-25.

Weinbaum, M. G. (1985). Egypt's "Infitah" and the Politics of US Economic Assistance. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, 206-222.

Yaqub, S. (2006). The United States and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947 to the Present. OAH Magazine of History, Organization of American Historians, 13-17

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18326/mlt.v7i2.8034


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Salatiga

Jl. Nakula Sadewa V No. 9, Kota Salatiga, Jawa Tengah 50722
Lt. 2 Gedung Skretariat Fakultas Ushuluddin Adab dan Humaniora